All papers submissions should be made using Annals of Dunarea de Jos University of Galati - Fascicle I. Economics and Applied Informatics website: www.eia.feaa.ugal.ro. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor’s decision and requests for revision, takes place electronically by email:
Papers must be written in English and must be original; the paper has not been previously published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Papers which meet the aims and scope of the journal will be subject to blind review normally by at least two referees. To allow for this blinded review, authors are required to provide files that are free from author-identifying information. You will be asked to enter your contact details during the online submission process and present them in a title page that is not shared with referees.
Submitted papers must contain original work that has not previously been published and that has not being submitted for publication elsewhere. Paper is accepted for review with the understanding that no substantial portion of the paper has been published or is under consideration for publication elsewhere and that its submission for publication has been approved by all of the authors and by the institution where the work was carried out. It is further understood that any person cited as a source of personal communications has approved such citation. Publication in a limited distribution “Proceedings”, or in a working paper series, does not disqualify a paper. Articles and any other material published in the proceeding represent the opinions of the authors and should not be construed to reflect the opinions of the Editor(s) or the Publisher. Authors are required to disclose papers published or under review in other journals that are based on similar methods or data. Please cite and explain how the current paper differs from these similar papers. Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that if the paper is accepted for publication, copyright for the article, including the right to reproduce the article in all forms and media, shall be assigned exclusively to the Publisher.
Essential title page information
The title must be concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations
Present the authors'' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done). Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present / permanent address
If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a “Present address” (or “Permanent address”). The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address
A concise and factual abstract of at most 150 words is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Keywords (at least five) are also required. There is no point repeating words that are in the title. Please be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
The paper must be in Word format, Size A4, Margins: Top 2 cm, Bottom 2 cm, Inside/Outside 2.5cm, Mirror Margins, Font: Cambria 10. Find all this enclosed in the file: Journal Template.doc. The length of the submitted paper should be between 10-14 pages, including references, tables, figures, all appendices and annexes, which are not to be made available separately.
The article should be the result of a research corresponding to the specific topic of the journals’ issue. The structure of the paper should be clear and well organized. The paper should be arranged in sequentially numbered sections. The first section should be the Introduction. Where appropriate for the content, sub-sections are allowed and these should be titled and numbered with a second digit (2.1, 2.2 and so on). Please make use of accepted terminology in your field, provide a detailed description of methodology, clearly state your results, and discuss the implications of your findings.
The introduction should include a statement of the problem being addressed, why it is important, and to whom it is important. This section should contain a general introduction, the literature review, the connection of the present study to the literature and the explicit statement of purpose. State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Authors should fully disclose their methods and data; the disclosure of data will be considered in the decision of whether to publish the paper. The purpose of this section is to describe in detail how you performed the study. Someone should be able to replicate your study based on the information you provide in this section. Avoid unnecessary details like the data were displayed on the computer screen and recorded on the data sheet. For an experiment, this section is typically divided into four subsections: subjects, apparatus, design, and procedure. The order of design followed by procedure is arbitrary. In other words, you could have the procedure come before the design. Sometimes researchers combine the design and procedure sections, however, in an experimental psychology or research methods class, a separate design section is typically required. For a survey study (i.e., one in which the participants are simply asked a set of questions), the design section is not necessary (and the survey itself may be included as an appendix). Indicate who participated in the study, how many, and how were they selected Include any details which are relevant to the study. Carefully summarize each step in the execution of the study. Describe any phases that the study had or any instructions that the subjects received.
Results should be clear and concise. This section will be easier to write if you make any tables and/or figures you intend to use first. Briefly state the main findings in words. That is, first give a general description and then go into the details. When presenting the results of statistical tests, give descriptive statistics before the corresponding inferential statistics. In other words, give means and/or percentages (perhaps referring to a table or figure), before talking about the results of any statistical tests you performed. When presenting means, it is reasonable to use one additional digit of accuracy than what is contained in the raw data. In other words, if the raw data consisted of whole numbers, then the means should contain one decimal place.
The purpose of this section is to evaluate and interpret the results, especially with respect to the original research question. Start off with a brief, non-technical summary of the results. Then go on to discuss the implications of the results It is also important to discuss how the results relate to the literature you cited in the introduction. Finally, you need an ending paragraph in which you make a final summary statement of the conclusions you have drawn. Thus, this section should contain the non-technical summary, discussion of the results and their implications and the concluding paragraph.
The conclusion should briefly summarize the problem statement and the general content of the work and emphasize on the main contribution of the work. When writing the conclusion keep in mind that some readers may not have gone through the whole paper, but have jumped directly to the conclusion after having read the abstract in order the decide on the personal relevance of the paper. Therefore, the conclusion should be self-contained, which means that a reader should be able to understand the essence of the conclusion without having to read the whole paper. The conclusion typically ends with an outlook that describes possible extensions of the presented approaches and of planned future work. It should tell the reader clearly what the paper finds or demonstrates. It should be consistent with the objectives set forth in the introduction. It should describe the implications of the results for researchers, traders, policy makers, etc.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. Acknowledgements should be as brief as possible. Any grant that requires acknowledgement should be mentioned. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.
At the end of the paper, the references should be listed alphabetically by surname of the first author and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters “a”, “b”, “c” etc., placed after the year of publication.
Use the following format:
For articles: King, R. G. and Levne, R. (1993), “Finance, Entrepreneurship and Growth: Theory and Evidence”, Journal of Monetary Economics, 32(3), pp. 513-542.
For books: Pratt, S. P. (2002), „Cost of Capital. Estimation and Applications”, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
For collective works: Shibata, H. and Kimura, Y. (1986), „Are Budget Deficits the Cause of Growth in Government Expenditure?” in: B.P. Herber (Ed.): Public Finance and Public Debt, Wayne University Press, pp. 229-242.
For working papers: Hansen, P. R. and Lunde, A. (2001), “The comparison of volatility models: does anything beat a GARCH (1,1)?”, Working paper Series No. 84, Aarhus School of Business, Centre for Analytical Finance, pp. 1-41.
For conference papers: Caprirolo, G. (2006), “Proportional (flat) personal income tax rate and competitiveness in Slovenia: Towards understanding the policy issues and policy implications”, Paper presented at the International Academic Forum on Flat Tax Rate, organized by the Center of Excelence in Finance, Bled, Slovenia and retrieved fromhttp://www.cef-see.org/index.php?location=1094 .
For web sites: WTO (2008), Data base,
Online publications: Bank for International Settlements (BIS), Papers No. 55, January 2011, “The future of central banking under post-crisis mandates”,
In general, only published references should be cited. If unpublished, indicate how copies may be obtained. Please check all references against their original sources. Authors should ensure that there is a strict one-to-one correspondence between the authors’ names (years) in the text and those in the reference list.
Detailed technical material and non-essential tables and figures should be placed in appendix wherever possible. The mathematical expressions should be presented in appendices with only the relevant results appearing in the text. Where results are being quoted from specialist mathematical journals or texts authors should ensure that the development is rigorous, comprehensible to the non-specialist reader and that sources are adequately cited, but should avoid unnecessary repetition of standard material. If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. They should not include displayed formulae or tables.
Citations in text
References should include relevant sources, those which add further evidence or clarify the methodology. References to publications should be as follows:
“Altman (1968) suggests that . . .” or “This problem was noted earlier (see Diamond, 1991;
Houston and James, 1996; Brown et al., 1992)”, or
“This financial model were applied on 117 companies (Shumway, 2001, p. 105)”. Also, in the text, references should appear for paper as “(Wood, 1992)”and for books as “(Pratt, 2002, p. 46)”.
Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically. For example: “as demonstrated (Johansen, 1988a, 1988b, 1990; Johansen and Robinson, 2000) or Keasey et al. (2005) have recently shown ...."
Tables should be prepared either in Word and each table must be cited in the text. They must be numbered consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text, in Arabic numerals and should have a brief informative title. The table should be placed in the body of the paper exactly where the authors want them to appear printed and should include an explanatory heading for the table as a whole and for each column within the table. All tables should be orientated like portrait. The tables with the landscape orientation are not suitable. Titles and numbers should be positioned above the table. Please indicate the source of data when appropriate, under the table. Tables should be understandable without reference to the text. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Tables should have a legend explaining any abbreviations used in the table.
Figures and graphs
Figures are best submitted in Picture format (JPG, JPEG, GIF, PNG), and they must not include the title; each figure must be cited in the text. They must be numbered consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text, in Arabic numerals and should have a brief informative title. The figure should be placed in the body of the paper exactly where the authors want them to appear printed. All figures should be orientated like portrait. The figures with the landscape orientation are not suitable. Titles and numbers should be positioned above the figure. Please indicate the source of data when appropriate, under the figure. Figures should have a legend explaining any abbreviations used in the figure. Figures could be made in colour or black & white lines. Figures should be high resolution with descriptive headings. Figures should be understandable without reference to the text.
Equations and formulae
All equations should be prepared either in Word format (Equation Editor). All but very short mathematical expressions should be displayed on a separate line and centered. Displayed formulae should be numbered consecutively throughout the paper as (1), (2) etc. on the right-hand side of the page. Every effort should be made to use notation that is in common use. All notation and symbols must be defined in the text of the paper. Letters used as symbols should be set in italics unless they represent vector quantities in which case they should be bold. Do not use bold or italics for numerals and abbreviations for math functions (such as ln). Use italics for names of statistical tests (such as t-statistics, t-test, t = 2.25, F-test).
Abbreviations and acronyms
Abbreviations and acronyms should be defined the first time they are used in text. Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote.
The journal does not have article submission charges (fee charged for authors whether an article is accepted or not). The journal has only fee for publication that is 30 Euros/article, or RON equivalent on payment day - exchange rate of the National Bank of Romania (the first author’s free copy of the journal being included, regardless of the number of authors).
The payment will be made in the name of ASOCIATIA PROECONOMICA Galati, CEC Bank, IBAN Code: RO65CECEGL1030RON0671691. The papers should be sent on e-mail
Papers that don't comply with this guide will not be considered for publication.